Vegan Substitutions Guide

If you’re new to vegan cooking you may be looking for substitutions you can use in your old non-vegan recipes. Thankfully, there are plenty of products vegans can use in place of animal ingredients that will make vegan cooking a breeze. Let’s cover how to replace animal ingredients with vegan ingredients.

Milk. It’s very easy to substitute for cow’s milk in a recipe. You can use soymilk, rice milk, oat milk, or nut milk measure for measure. To make buttermilk, put 1 tablespoon of vinegar or lemon juice in your measuring cup and then add your soymilk to the amount specified in the recipe.

Cheese. Be sure to read the label as some vegetarian cheeses contain casein, which is not vegan. If you can find a great vegan cheese that you like, use it in your recipes in the same manner that you would use dairy cheese.

In place of cottage or ricotta cheese, you can use crumbled tofu, but remember that it won’t melt or have the same creamy consistency you’d expect from cottage or ricotta cheese. You may need to spice it up with herbs and add some salt to make it work in your recipe.

Eggs. A great substitute for scrambled eggs is tofu scramble. You can either use a recipe from a cookbook or simply buy a box of Tofu Scrambler in the store that you then mix with crumbled tofu and heat in a frying pan. Kids generally like tofu scramble, especially kids who have been vegan their entire lives. You can spice it up with tomatoes, peppers, onions, or even potatoes and vegan bacon bits.

In baked goods, good substitutions for eggs include applesauce, pureed soft tofu, Ener-G egg replacer, a flax egg (1 tablespoon ground flax seeds plus 3 tablespoons water or other liquid, blended), or mashed bananas. You’ll have to experiment with your recipe to see what works best for you.

In dishes where eggs are usually used for binding (such as meatloaf) you can use oat or soy flour, rolled oats, cooked oatmeal, bread crumbs, instant potato flakes, nut butters, tomato paste, or cornstarch. For glazing pie crust or phyllo dough with egg wash, just use soymilk instead.

Beef or chicken stock. Replace beef or chicken stock with water or vegetable broth. Or use vegetable bouillon cubes.

Butter. There are vegan margarines on the market that work well in substituting for butter. Be sure to read the labels because not all margarines are vegan. You may also want to consider using oils like canola, sunflower, olive or corn instead of butter or margarine. One of the best is Earth Balance.

Yogurt. Several companies make soy or coconut yogurts that will substitute well in your recipes. You can find them in fruit flavors and also plain for cooking and baking.

Sour Cream. Try plain soy yogurt, especially if used in making dips. There are also a few commercially available vegan sour creams on the market. In addition, there are several vegan cookbooks that have excellent recipes for vegan sour cream in them.

Mayonnaise. There are a few vegan mayonnaise products on the market. You can use vegan mayonnaise exactly the way you’d use the non-vegan mayonnaise. Vegan cookbooks often contain a recipe for vegan mayonnaise as well; I’ve made at least two recipes from cookbooks that came out better than the real thing!

Gelatin. If you need to substitute for gelatin in a recipe, use agar flakes or powder. It will thicken as it is heated. Also, there are a couple of companies that make a vegan fruit gelatin product that you should be able to find at your local health food market.

Honey. There are many liquid sweeteners on the market that you can use in your recipes instead of honey. However, they all vary in consistency and sweetness, making substitution a guessing game, at least initially. You may have to experiment with ratios until you figure out what works best in your recipes.

In general, however, maple syrup and liquid FruitSource can be substituted measure for measure in recipes. Other sweeteners that are less sweet than honey include agave syrup, corn syrup, malt syrup, light and dark molasses, and brown rice syrup. Frozen fruit-juice concentrates, sorghum syrup, and concentrated fruit syrups range from being half as sweet to just as sweet as honey.

Sugar. Many vegans do not eat sugar since some sugar is refined using bone char from animals. Others object to using sugar simply because it isn’t as healthy as other sweeteners, it’s often full of pesticides, and the sugar plantation workers aren’t always treated very well. If you want to replace crystalline sugar in a recipe, here are some alternatives: beet sugar, fructose, organic sugar, unbleached cane sugar, turbinado sugar, date sugar, maple crystals, and granulated FruitSource. Some of these sugars dissolve better than others, so again, you’ll have to experiment.

Chocolate. I’m sure there are many people who simply could not be vegan if it meant giving up chocolate, but luckily they don’t have to. There are non-dairy vegan chocolate chips, cocoa powders, and chocolate bars that are easily found in the health food store. Be warned that some brands of non-dairy chocolate chips don’t melt too well in a cookie. You can also switch to using carob (powder and chips) instead of chocolate in your recipes.

Meat. If you want your foods to have a similar taste and texture to meat, you’re in luck, because never before have so many companies manufactured products just for us. Among the products on the market now that will substitute for meat are: veggie deli slices (bologna, ham, turkey, and other flavors), veggie burgers, veggie meatballs, veggie sausage links and patties, veggie bacon, veggie ground “beef,” soy chicken patties and nuggets, veggie meatloaf and Salisbury steak, veggie jerky, and whole “turkeys” for Thanksgiving or other holidays.

Check your vegan cookbooks for recipes for foods like “neatloaf,” nut roasts, lentil-walnut pates, and other old favorites that traditionally contained animal flesh.

Ice Cream. Along with the proliferation of meat analogues, your health food store is now probably well stocked with vegan ice cream. This industry has grown tremendously from the day I first went vegan. There are vegan ice creams with a soy base, rice base, or nut base, and they’re all delicious. Some are high in fat and some are fat-free. Some are fruity like sorbet, while others are sinfully decadent like butter pecan, peanut butter zig-zag, or peanut caramel. You can also buy vegan ice cream sandwiches, mud pies, and ice cream bars. I’ve made some great shakes, floats, and malts using vegan ice cream products. Your kids will love them too!

Excerpted from Raising Vegan Children in a Non-Vegan World* by Erin Pavlina.

  • For lots more features on healthy lifestyle, please explore VegKitchen’s Healthy Vegan Kitchen page.

*This post contains affiliate links. If the product is purchased by linking through this review, VegKitchen receives a modest commission, which helps maintain our site and helps it to continue growing!


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15 comments on “Vegan Substitutions Guide

  1. Brianne

    You may want to look into this substitute guide again. Two of the most genetically modified crops are corn and soy. They say products of either are really unsafe for people to consume, after doing a lot of tests. A lot of cows that are being fed GM corn are having miscarriages because of it. Soy products and especially vegetarian meat products are SO unhealthy for you. It is more difficult for the body to digest heavily processed vegetarian meat. I stopped eating it for a couple of years, and then I had a little bit, and my digestive system was off the wall for days. I did NOT feel good. I’m pretty sure my body was trying to tell me something? Beet sugar is also really unsafe, because beats are also being genetically modified. But most “sugar” is beet sugar now, unless it says pure cane milled sugar. It’s safer to make your substitutes from scratch, and avoid soy products altogether. They don’t aggravate your bodies like soy does either.

  2. Ana Bolena

    Thanks twice. Often I would like to make a comment but seldom do because the of the arduous sign up process; so far, yours seems to be the easiest.
    I am not vegan but I bake for a couple of vegan cafes. Finding ingredients is often challenging because I live in a little beach village in Costa Rica. probably also why they asked me, a person who eats mostly non-vegan. Very interesting about soy. Now I see why many absolutely won’t buy anything if it has soy oil; in fact, I just decided not to use the soy oil at all any more for anything, including the non vegan breads although Oil of Girasol costs nearly twice. Appreciate the enlightenment. Btw, the flax eggs make a great addition in texture, visual and health benefits.

  3. Nava

    I’m not a big fan of meat substitutes, but they do help people make the transition. I agree that in the long run it’s better to enjoy a whole foods plant-based diet. That said, you can get tofu, tempeh, and miso that is organic and non-GMO. Same for corn —organic corn (whole corn, not corn products) is available non-GMO. Of course, we now have the issue of drift, but we all just need to do the best we can!

  4. Bonnie Kaake

    Great article! I would omit “fructose” which is corn syrup…highly processed and most likely GMO. All of the scary information about soy was propagated by the dairy industry and totally false. The vast majority of corn and soy that is GMO/genetically modified is fed to animals, about 95%. Just watch the labels to be sure the soy (tofu, soy milk, etc.) states non-GMO. I have not found anything but non-GMO soy products at Whole Foods.

    As for beef or chicken broth, the very best substitutes I have found are from recipes in “The Happy Herbivore” by Lindsay S. Nixon (No-Beef Broth and No-Chicken Broth Powder). I make up the No-Chicken Broth Powder and keep it in a glass jar, ready for any soup or other recipe that calls for broth.

  5. Heather

    This is a great guide. However, I need a substitute for eggs when making things with a bread crumb coating. Like tonight, I tried to make zucchini parmesan. I tried to use butter in place of eggs when coating the zucchini with panko bread crumbs. This didn’t work and all my bread crumbs came off. Any suggestions?

  6. Nava

    Heather, you might try making a medium-thick batter of garbanzo flour (available at natural foods stores) in a large bowl (usually a 1 to 1 ratio with water, so for example, 1/2 cup garbanzo flour + 1/2 cup water). Dunk your zucchini slices into the batter all at once until they’re evenly coated. Then put your crumbs into a produce bag. Add the battered zuchini and shake it up until well coated.

    I was also going to suggest making a flax “egg” but I’m not sure how well flaxseeds hold up to high heat. I hope the above works for you; let us know!

  7. Scotty Blaine

    Thank you for such a detailed and user friendly substitute list. It was very encouraging as I transition to being vegan. Please send me any newsletters, updates and discounts available. Thank you

  8. Karen

    What would be a good vegan alternative to 1/2 and 1/2 mixed with flour to add to a soup recipe?

  9. L.Hill

    I’m not sure I’d add agave syrup of any kind as a replacement. Actually has a much higher concentration of sugar than plain granulated sugar. I stick with dates, coconut nectar and on occ. honey/maple syrup

  10. Mary Piscitelli

    I have been exploring vegan substitutions with my daughter who is vegan. I have not committed to a vegan lifestyle, but that I would support her commitment. I have purchased both frozen meat substitutes and made some myself. I will say, I have had better success with flavor and texture with those I create myself rather than the premade ones. Here is my bigger concern: I am diabetic. I am interested in eating a low meat diet; however, most vegan substitutes are CARBOHYDRATE with very little protein in them. An example. Coconut milk yogurt. Tastes quite nice, but 1 g. protein for an 8 oz serving, as opposed to Greek yogurt (dairy) that can be as high as 15 g for 6 oz. I am constantly watching my fat, carbohydrate, and salt intake and am not too happy with the substitutions. BTW I have been cooking for most of my life, and already incorporate a healthy amount of beans/lentils/tofu into my weekly diet. Please also note that beans/legumes/soy all uptake as carbohydrate in our blood system. The protein uptake is secondary, so we diabetics have to be cautious about that too. I do use non-GMO soy, but do worry a little about the estrogen-like compounds since I am over 50. There are a lot of choices out there for vegan substitutions. My final comment: stay with whole plant foods, make sure to count any beans/lentils/soy and meat of soy/wheat/other as a carbohydrate servings, count the protein, carb, salt, and fat grams you get and take multivitamins to get your fullest nutrition. Have vegan meat/dairy substitutions infrequently. Have the real deal very rarely, but when you do,pay attention to where/how it is produced. I probably will never be a full-on vegan–I don’t think it will work out for me with all of the above issues.

  11. Beachgrammy57

    Heather, I hope you’ve found your solution! If not, please try plain old water. Your bread crumbs adhere very well with it. I’ve been vegan for 6 years and totally oil and sugar (except natural) for 2 years. It’s very easy to make adjustments ONCE you’ve gotten started.

  12. donna

    Love this site. Wish more people would try to go meatless or vegan. I became vegan and quit smoking same day 25 years ago. Don’t miss meat or those nasty cigs

  13. Linda

    Shalom and Hello to all at Vegkitchen!
    Hope You’re all well!
    Although I am not a vegan, I’ve spent a number of years investigating Kosher food (the highest standard of food available) and trying with G-d’s help to aim for a chemical free diet, as far as is possible. Here’s a recipe you might like to try using Kosher ingredients:-

    White Sauce – Take organic wheat four (or spelt) with olive oil, pinch of salt, pepper and mix into a paste in a saucepan over a low heat. Add organic Oatly oat drink and stir continually until the sauce thickens!
    Do not turn the heat up.
    The quantities depend on how much sauce you require!

    Happy Sauce Making!

    May G-d bless you!

    In anticipation of the return of
    OUR Messiah Yeshua!!

  14. alessandra mezzoni

    Hi I’m going to Turkey on holiday I’m vegan and also sugar free I was wondering does anyone know if there is a coffee mate powder which is dairy and sugar free that I can take with me Thanks

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